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最后英语四级阅读冲刺:高分技能

  阅读理解除了要求正确理解事实细节的能力外,还经常需要考生根据一定上下文对某些词汇的意义进行推断、根据所读材料理解文章隐含的意义和深层次的含义、归纳文章主题思想、通过概括得出结论、综合判断作者态度等,这就要求考生具备相应的阅读理解微技能,与四级考试密切相关的一些微技能包括词汇的理解、预测、判断、归纳和推理。

  词汇的理解

  对于阅读中碰到的生僻词,我们首先要学会识别哪些情况下即使不了解词义也不影响对短文的理解;其次是转变对生僻词义认识上的态度,即在许多情况下不必了解该词的确切意义,尤其没有必要了解它在英汉辞典中的中文释义,而只需对该词词义的大概而笼统的理解就行。实践中,在确定了短文中哪些生僻词的词义有必要作一大概了解后,我们可以从以下两个角度来猜度词义:

  (1) 构词知识

  即利用单词的构词要素词根,前后缀来识记单词。

  词根是一个单词的根本部分,代表词的基本意义;前缀是加在词根或单词前面的部分,通常也有一定含义;后缀是加在词根或单词后面的部分,通常在增加词义的同时还改变词性。通过词根词缀构词的方式有多种,现简单归纳如下:

  ①前缀+词根:inter(中间)+vene→intervene(介入)

  ②词根+后缀:circl(圆)+let(小)→circlet(小环)

  ③词根+词根:tele(远)+scope(镜)→telescope(望远镜)

  ④前缀+词根+后缀:in(不)+aud(听)+ible(可)→inaudible(听不见)

  ⑤双前缀+词根:re(再)+dis(取下)+cover(盖)→rediscover(再发现)

  ⑥词根+双后缀:care(用心)+less(不)+ly(地)→carelessly(不小心地)

  ⑦前缀+双词根:tri(三)+gono(角)+metry(测量)→trigonometry(三角几何)

  ⑧双词根+后缀:biblio(书)+phil(爱)+ist(人)→bibliophilist(书籍爱好者)

  ⑨双前缀+词根+后缀:ir(不)+re(反对)+sist(站)+ible→irresistible(不可抵抗的)

  前缀+词根+双后缀:se(离)+greg(群)+ation+ist→segregationist(种族隔离主义者)

  双前缀+词根+双后缀:un(不)+pre(先)+ced(走)+ent+ed→unprecedented(史无前例的)

  (2) 上下文线索

  利用上下文线索猜测词义的方法很多,但其核心是寻找与该生僻词相关的上下文意义线索,这些线索主要可归纳为以下几种:

  ①同义定义为了便于读者理解作者本义,作者有时会对文中的生僻词或专业性较强的词直接给出定义。在下定义时,作者常使用一些信号词,如:is/are(called),means,can be defined as,refer to,is/are known as,signify等,例:

  Food fallacies refer to beliefs about food that are not true.

  或标点符号,如——,()等,例:

  Multiplexing ——transmitting independent signals at the same time in the same channel——increases the efficiency of radio channels.

  有时,作者用同位语形式或连词or给出定义,例:

  Nerve cells evidently first appeared in coelenterates, “hollowgutted” organisms like hydra and the sea anemone.

  Intelligent behavior remained impossible until the appearance of relatively big,complex types of brain——the types we find among the vertebrates,or backboned animals.

  ②近义复述同一短文中上下毗邻的句子通常有互释作用,我们可以从上下文的复述中获取与某一单词相关的信息来猜度词义。例:

  Mr. and Mrs. Firth had a long courtship. They dated for nine years before they got married.

  Although he often had the opportunity,Mr. Tritt never stole money from a customer. This would have endangered his position at the bank,and he did not want to jeopardize his future.

  ③反义对照在表示对照的上下文中,常包含有意义相反的词语或概念,这些意义相反的概念可以互为线索,帮助我们猜度词义。常有以下一些信号词:although,but,however,though,whereas,while,yet,on the contrary,on the other hand等。

  例:Chimpanzees(猩猩) in the wild use simple objects as tools,but in laboratory situations they can use more sophisticated items.

  Most dentists-offices are drab places,while Emilio’s new office is a bright,cheerful place.

  ④搭配集合利用词与词的搭配或该词所出现的语境,我们也能推知词义的大概轮廓。例:

  People gathered to look. Three fine streams of hot water sprouted from holes in the jacket(套,壳) of the radiator.

  A man is watering his lawn just as an attractive,well dressed girl walked by. As he ogles her,he accidentally turns the hose on his ugly,dowdy wife.

  ⑤比较举例上下文中的比较和举例,能揭示比较物或列举物之间的共性,我们可根据这些共性来推知有关词语的意思。例:

  The consequences of epochal events such as wars and great scientific discoveries are not confined to a small geographical area.

  Doctors believe that smoking cigarettes is detrimental to your health. They also regard drinking as harmful.

  ⑥因果时间因与果、时间的先与后都是事物发展变化过程中的必然关系,在利用上下文推测词义时,这些关系也至关重要。例:

  Robert is considered peremptory administrator because he makes decisions without seeking the opinions of others.

  When Mark was in pedantic mood,he assumed the manner of a famous professor and gave long lectures on boring, insignificant topics.

  ⑦常识包括我们的生活经历、经验常识以及自己专业方面的知识,在阅读到与自己专业相近的文章时,我们都会感到相对容易,这正是我们的专业知识在帮我们理解。例:

  An apple falls up because of gravity.

  An atomic clock is so precise that it can be used to check the accuracy of predictions based on Einstein’s relativity theories.