81. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for a mateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the 19th century and then by several local geological journals in the 20th century.

  [参考译文] 这样一来总的结果便是业余爱好者想在专业地质学期刊…卜发表文章就更难了,而被广泛使用的论文评审推荐制度又进一步强化了这一结果,该种制度先是出现在19世纪的国家级刊物上,后又在20世纪被几家地方级地质学刊物所使用。

  82. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

  [参考译文] 一个颇为相似的分化过程已经导致专业的地质学家走到一起组成一到两个全国性的专科学术社团,而业余地质爱好者们倾向于要么仍留在地方社团,要么也以另一种方式组成全国性机构。

  83. Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low--level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head--scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.

  [参考译文] 遗憾地讲,这次新闻机构可信度调查计划结果只获得了一些十分低层次的发现,比如新闻报道中的事实错误,拼写或语法错误(和这些低层次发现)交织在一起的还有许多令人挠头的困惑,譬如读者到底想读些什么。

  84. I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&M wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers’ demands.

  [参考译文] 我认为巨大的并购浪潮背后的最重要的推动力同时也就是促成全球化进程的那方基石:即降低交通运输成本,逐渐减少贸易投资壁垒,以及大幅度拓展市场,这些都要求更大规模的经营管理以满足消费者需求。

  85. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress promoted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming "I wanted to spend more time with my family."

  [参考译文] 一次侧面的不光明磊落的攻击伤害了我的自尊,阻碍了我事业的发展,使我不得不抛弃了那份引人注目的工作,尽管表面上我还要以一个蒙受屈辱的政府部长的姿态,通过声称"我只不过是想多和家人呆在一起" 来掩盖我的退出。

  86. I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your life", and making the alternative move into "downshifting brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.

  [参考译文] 或许正像凯尔西在不堪积劳重负而公开地辞去她在《她》杂志社的编辑 一职之后一样,我已经发现,放弃那种"为生活忙碌"的人生信条并转 而追求比较悠闲的生活带给你的回报远远大于经济成功和社会地位。

  87. While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline-after the mass redundancies caused by downsizing in the late ’ 80s-and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle-class down shifters of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.

  [参考译文] 在美国,这一返朴趋势是以经济衰落的反应为开始的--那是在80年 代末期裁员而引起大量的失业之后一一现在依然与提倡节俭的政纲相: 关;而在英国,最起码在我所熟识的中产阶级返朴归隐者中,追求简约; 生活的原因就多种多样了。

  88. For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the’ 80s, down-shifting in the mid’ 90s is not so much a search for the mythical good lift-growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one-as a personal recognition of your limitations.

  [参考译文] 对于我这一代曾在整个80年代为生活奔波的女人来说,90年代中期出 现的归隐恬退与其说是我们寻求一种神话般的美好生活--用有机肥种植蔬菜,并且自己放弃一切的风险--不如说是我们清醒地认识到自身;能力是有限的这一事实。

  89. If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it’ 11 be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman’ s notorious bad taste in ties.

  [参考译文] 如果你是你讲话对象中的一员,那么你就身处一种(有利)位置宋了解对你们来说都很普遍的经历和问题,而且你对餐厅中难以下咽的食物或老总臭名昭彰的领带品位进行随意评判也是合适的。

  90. There are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy--far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their handsaone

  [参考译文] 现在已有一些机器人系统能够进行精确到毫米以下的脑部和骨骼手术——这要比极具技巧的医生单单用手精确得多。

  91. But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least’ a few decisions for them- selves-goals that pose a real challenge.

  [参考译文] 但是如果机器人要达到节省人工的下一个阶段,它们将必须在更少的人力监督之下工作,而且还要能够自己作出至少几个决定--这些目标才会引发真正的挑战。

  92. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd.

  [参考译文] 但是人类的头脑可以只迅速地瞟一眼一个快速改变的场面,然后立刻放弃98%的不相关部分,而马上聚焦于一条崎岖森林道路边的一只猴子,或者在茫茫人海中的一张可疑的脸。

  93. The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25---0.5% of GDP.

  [参考译文] OECD在其最近的《经济瞭望》中估计,如果石油价格与1998年的每 桶13美元相比在一年中平均为每22美元,这也只会给富裕的经济体的 石油进口账单上增加GDP的0.25%到0.5%。

  94. One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand.

  [参考译文] 另外一个不应因油价上涨而失眠的原因是,这次不像70年代的那些次上涨,它并不是在普遍的商品价格暴涨和全球需求过旺的背景之下发生的。

  95. Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect", a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects--a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen--is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.

  [参考译文] 尽管它裁决并没有宪法权利来支持医生帮助下的自杀行为,最高法院实际上支持了被称为"双重效果"的医疗原则;这个已有几个世纪历史的道德原则认为一个可能有两个效果的行为--一个想要达到的好的效果和一个已经预见到的有害的效果是被允许的,如果行为的实施者想要的 只是好的效果的话。

  96. Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield doctors who "until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death."

  [参考译文] Nancy Dubler,Montehore医疗中心的主任,认为这一原则将会保护这样一些医生,他们到目前为止还强烈坚持他们不能够给病人足量的镇痛剂来控制他们的疼痛,如果这么做会加速他们的死亡的话。

  97. On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted--suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.

  [参考译文] 在另一个层面上,很多医疗界的人承认,关于医生帮助下的自杀的讨论部分是因为病人的绝望情绪,对他们来说,现代医学已经延长了死亡的身体痛苦。

  98. It identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end--of--life care.

  [参考译文] 它把对疼痛的治疗不足和盲目积极使用"有可能延长死亡时间甚至让死亡过程蒙羞的无效并且强迫性的医疗手段"视为生命临终医护的两个问题。

  99. In other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made narrative structure for otherwise confusing new.

  [参考译文] 换句话说,在媒介机构的新闻采编室文化中存在着--套约定俗成的写作模式,为新闻报道提供了主干框架以及可直接套用的叙述结构。若没有这些,新闻内容就会一团混乱,让人摸不着头脑。

  100. If it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.

  [参考译文] 如果新闻界真的注意到了问题的关键,它就应该进一步开放其多样化项目,这个项目现在还只单纯考虑招收不同种族和性别的员工,而进一步寻找那些世界观、价值观、教育水平和社会阶层大相径庭的各种记者。