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英语六级短文写作亮点设计(1)

  一篇优秀的作文,除了做到结构清晰、句式多变以外,往往还会出现一到两个让教官眼前为之一亮的亮点,这样的亮点设计会给你的作文大大增色,往往会给考官留下深刻的印象。

  一、遣词用语准确地道

  1.认真辨析同义词

  由于英语词义范畴非常广泛,即便是同义词也只是某种程度上的近似,不可能在意义上完全对等。这就需要考生在选词时斟酌其含义的微妙差别,辨析同义词在具体语境中的不同用法。

  【例1】

  1. Everyone had special interest while reading so we could choose different books to read according to our personal interests.

  2. Everyone had special interest while reading so we could select different books to read according to our personal interests.

  【分析】choose指的是“一般性的选择”;而select则强调“在一定范围内挑选”,此处明显用后者更为恰当。

  2.恰当使用限定词

  用词准确从另外一个角度讲就是要使论述客观、适度,这就需要考生适当使用一些限定词,以避免观点的绝对化,从而提高说服力和可信度。

  写作中常见的限定词有:may, maybe, perhaps, probably, mainly, generally, commonly, personally, comparatively, typically, usually, sometimes, often, most, mostly, nearly, almost, not necessarily, in general, at least, at most, may as well, had better, to some extent, to some degree, more often than not, for the most part等。

  【例2】

  I don’t agree with the first argument to some extent.

  【分析】to some extent意为“在某种程度上”,表明观点的客观性,避免了绝对化,为自己留有余地。

  3.注意词语的习惯搭配

  用词准确不但要求考生掌握具体单词的含义,还要熟悉词语的习惯搭配,一定要避免受汉语语意的干扰而出现错误。

  【例3】

  1. The traffic in many big cities is getting more and more crowded.

  2. The traffic in many big cities is getting heavier and heavier.

  【分析】汉语中我们可以说“交通拥挤”,但英文中traffic和crowded是不能搭配的,因为crowded是表示街道、房间等地方挤满了人或东西,我们可以说“The street is crowded.”,但不能说“The traffic is crowded.”。而要表达“交通拥挤”,应该用heavy一词。

  4.避免生造词语

  生编硬造词语是考生在写作中常犯的错误之一,主要表现为将汉语意思生译成英文,即所谓的“中国式英语”。

  【例4】

  1. To be a three good student is always a symbol of achievement for the Chinese students.

  2. To be an all-round student is always a symbol of achievement for the Chinese students.

  【分析】a three good student在此是表示“三好学生”,中国人都能看懂,但却令外国人费解,是典型的“中国式英语”;而恰当的表达应该是“an all-round student”,或用比较直白的方式将其译为“an excellent student in all aspects”。

  5.避免口语化

  六级作文除个别应用文以外,基本都属于较正式的书面文体,因此在写作时要避免使用口语化的词汇,具体遣词时要注意以下几点:

  1)避免使用缩写形式,比如 do not不要写成don’t,it is不要写成it’s。

  2)避免使用方言俚语,比如a whole 'nother(完全不同的)或flip side(另一面,反面)等。

  3)避免使用非标准化的表述方式,比如gonna, wanna之类的口语。

  4)尽量使用单词而不是短语,比如用investigate要优于用look into,用determine要优于make up one’s mind,因为相对单词来说,短语更加口语化,而且不够精练。

  5)不要总使用常用的、口语色彩较浓的词汇,比如many, about, do之类的词。

  【例5】

  1. Many college students are gonna take part in CET-4.

  2. Many college students would like to take part in CET-4.

  【分析】be gonna与would like to都可以表示“想要或打算…”,但be gonna是口语中的非正式用法,不能出现在书面文体中。

  6.避免赘言啰嗦

  考生在写作时要有意识地使用同义词、同根词或上、下义词来取代上文中出现过的词汇以避免重复和啰嗦,以求文采。

  【例6】

  1. With the publication of the novel, he became famous as the greatest writer living then, and he has been more as a major American author ever since. He is now also becoming more with Chinese readers.

  2. With the publication of the novel, he became famous as the greatest writer living then, and his reputation as a major American author has been on the increase ever since. He is now also becoming more and more popular with Chinese readers.

  【分析】第1段中表示“闻名”使用的都是同一个词“famous”,给人感觉单调乏味,缺少文采;了“famous”、“reputation”和“popular”三个词性不同、意义接近的词来表达“闻名”的意思,而且“on the increase”和“more and more”表达的也是同样的意思,这样就避免了用语的重复,表达灵活生动,颇具文采。